# Phase transitions

A **phase transition** occurs at points on the phase diagram where the Helmholtz energy function is a singular function of the thermodynamic variables within it
^{[1]}.
The following is (an incomplete) list of phase transitions. The change from one state to another is usually monitored by some sort of order parameter.

- 1-dimensional phase transitions
- Disordered hyperuniform phase
- First-order transitions
- Gardner phase transition
- Gas-liquid phase transitions
- Glass transition
- Isotropic-nematic phase transition
- Jamming transition
- Kosterlitz-Thouless transition
- Landau theory of second-order phase transitions
- Liquid-liquid phase transitions
- Martensitic phase transitions
- Nematic-smectic phase transition
- Nonequilibrium phase transitions
- Order-disorder transitions
- Quantum phase transitions
- Second-order transitions
- Solid-liquid phase transitions
- Topological phase transitions
- Vapour-liquid phase transitions

**Other transitions**

## See also[edit]

## References[edit]

**Recommended reading**

- Paul Ehrenfest "Phase conversions in a general and enhanced sense, classified according to the specific singularities of the thermodynamic potential", Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen
**36**pp. 153-157 (1933) - H. Eugene Stanley "Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena", Oxford University Press (1988)
- J. M. Yeomans "Statistical Mechanics of Phase Transitions", Oxford University Press (1992)
- Benjamin Widom "Theory of Phase Equilibrium", Journal of Physical Chemistry
**100**pp 13190-13199 (1996) - Georgii A. Martynov "The problem of phase transitions in statistical mechanics", Physics-Uspekhi
**42**pp. 517-543 (1999) - Philip Ball "Transitions still to be made", Nature
**402**C73-C76 (1999) - H. Kleinert and V. Schulte-Frohlinde,
*Critical Properties of φ*, World Scientific (Singapore, 2001); Paperback ISBN 981-02-4659-5 (Read online at [1])^{4}-Theories - R. Ni "Entropy-Driven Phase Transitions in Colloidal Systems", PhD Thesis, Utrecht University (2012)
- T. Frolov and Y. Mishin "Phases, phase equilibria, and phase rules in low-dimensional systems", Journal of Chemical Physics
**143**044706 (2015)