Liquid phase density maximum

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There are a number of liquids that have a density maximum in the liquid phase. The most celebrated is that of water, which was first reported in 1792[1]. However, liquid helium 4 also has a maximum at 2.18 K (Ref. ??), liquid gallium at ??K (Ref. ??), silica at ??K (Ref. ??), tellurium (Ref. [2]), and germanium at ?? (Ref. ??). Bismuth appears not to have a density maximum within the liquid phase, however the "low temperature" liquid does appear to be denser than the "high temperature" solid (Ref. [3]),

Water[edit]

System model T_{\mathrm {TMD}} (K) density at T=T_{\mathrm {TMD}} (Kg/m3) Reference
H2O experimental 277.134 999.972 [4]
D2O experimental 284.335 1106.00 [5]
T2O experimental 286.553 1215.02 [6]
H2O ST2 300 [7]
H2O TIPS2 298 \pm 25 [8]
H2O SPC 228 1008 [9]
H2O SPC/E 241 1012 [10]
H2O TIP3P 182 1038 [9]
H2O TIP4P 253 1008 [9]
H2O TIP4P/Ew 273 1000 [11]
H2O TIP4P/Ice 295 994 [9]
H2O TIP5P 285 989 [9]
H2O TIP5P-E 282 1004 [12]
H2O TIP4P/2005 278 1000.5 [13]
H2O TIP4PQ/2005 280 999.2 [14]
H2O TTM2.1-F 273 1038 [15]
H2O COS/B2 170 1076 [16]
H2O COS/G2 255 1013 [16]
H2O COS/G3 195 1042 [16]
H2O SWM4-DP 235 1017 [16]
H2O SWM4-NDP 152 1048 [16]
H2O BKd1 251 1013 [16]
H2O BKd2 237 1018 [16]
H2O BKd3 278 999 [16]

References[edit]

  1. Charles Blagden and George Gilpin "Supplementary Report on the Best Method of Proportioning the Excise upon Spirituous Liquors", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 82 pp. 425-455 (1792)
  2. Nobumasa Funamori and Kazuhiko Tsuji "Structural transformation of liquid tellurium at high pressures and temperatures", Physical Review B 65 014105 (2001)
  3. S. V. Stankus, R. A. Khairulin, A. G. Mozgovoi, V. V. Roshchupkin and M. A. Pokrasin "An Experimental Investigation of the Density of Bismuth in the Condensed State in a Wide Temperature Range", High Temperature 43 pp. 368-378 (2005)
  4. G. S. Kell "Precise representation of volume properties of water at one atmosphere", Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 12 pp. 66-69 (1967)
  5. P. G. Hill, R. D. Chris MacMillan, and V. Lee "A Fundamental Equation of State for Heavy Water", Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 11 pp. 1-14 (1982)
  6. Maxwell Goldblatt "The Density of Liquid T2O", Journal of Physical Chemistry 68 pp. 147-151 (1964)
  7. Frank H. Stillinger and Aneesur Rahman "Improved simulation of liquid water by molecular dynamics", Journal of Chemical Physics 60 pp. 1545-1557 (1974)
  8. William L. Jorgensen "Revised TIPS for simulations of liquid water and aqueous solutions", Journal of Chemical Physics 77 pp. 4156- (1982)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 C. Vega and J. L. F. Abascal "Relation between the melting temperature and the temperature of maximum density for the most common models of water", Journal of Chemical Physics 123 144504 (2005) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "vegaAbascal" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "vegaAbascal" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "vegaAbascal" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "vegaAbascal" defined multiple times with different content
  10. Taras Bryk and A. D. J. Haymet "The Ice/Water Interface: Density-Temperature Phase Diagram for the SPC/E Model of Liquid Water", Molecular Simulation 30 pp. 131-135 (2004)
  11. Hans W. Horn, William C. Swope, Jed W. Pitera, Jeffry D. Madura, Thomas J. Dick, Greg L. Hura and Teresa Head-Gordon "Development of an improved four-site water model for biomolecular simulations: TIP4P-Ew", Journal of Chemical Physics 120 pp. 9665-9678 (2004)
  12. Steven W. Rick "A reoptimization of the five-site water potential (TIP5P) for use with Ewald sums", Journal of Chemical Physics 120 6085 (2004)
  13. J. L. F. Abascal and C. Vega "A general purpose model for the condensed phases of water: TIP4P/2005", Journal of Chemical Physics, 123 234505 (2005)
  14. E. G. Noya, C. Vega, L. M. Sesé, and R. Ramírez "Quantum effects on the maximum in density of water as described by the TIP4PQ/2005 model", Journal of Chemical Physics 131 124518 (2009)
  15. Francesco Paesani, Satoru Iuchi, and Gregory A. Voth "Quantum effects in liquid water from an ab initio-based polarizable force field", Journal of Chemical Physics 127 074506 (2007)
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 Péter T. Kiss and András Baranyai "Density maximum and polarizable models of water", Journal of Chemical Physics 137 084506 (2012) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "" defined multiple times with different content
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