Equations of state

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Equations of state are generally expressions that relate the macroscopic observables, or state variables, such as pressure, p, volume, V, and temperature, T.


Virial equations of state

Semi-empirical equations of state

Naturally there is the ideal gas equation of state. However, one of the first steps towards a description of realistic substances was the famous van der Waals equation of state. Since then a plethora of semi-empirical equations have been developed, often in a similar vein to the van der Waals equation of state, each trying to better reproduce the foibles of the many gasses and/or liquids that are often of industrial interest.

Other methods

Model systems

Equations of state for idealised models:

Interesting reading


  • "Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures", Eds. J. V. Sengers, R. F. Kayser, C. J. Peters, and H. J. White Jr., Elsevier (2000) ISBN 0-444-50384-6