Virial theorem

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The virial theorem is a feature of systems with central forces.

\overline{ \mathcal{V} }= - \frac{1}{2} \overline{\sum_i \frac{dU}{dr}\cdot r_i}

The overlines represent time averages. The right hand side is known as the virial of Clausius [1]. (Note: Herbert Goldstein uses T for the virial [2], however here we use T for temperature, thus we use \mathcal{V} as per Hansen and McDonald[3]).

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