The virial theorem is a feature of systems with central forces.
The overlines represent time averages. The right hand side is known as the virial of Clausius . (Note: Herbert Goldstein uses for the virial , however here we use for temperature, thus we use as per Hansen and McDonald).
- R. Clausius "XVI. On a mechanical theorem applicable to heat", Philosophical Magazine 40 pp. 122-127 (1870)
- Herbert Goldstein, Charles P. Poole, Jr. and John L. Safko "Classical Mechanics" (3rd edition) Addison-Wesley (2002) § 3.4
- Jean-Pierre Hansen and I.R. McDonald "Theory of Simple Liquids", Academic Press (2006) (Third Edition) Eq. 2.2.5
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