Harmonic spring approximation

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The Harmonic spring (also known as the Hookean spring) approximation assumes that the spring obeys Hookes Law, i.e.

{\mathbf F} = -k {\mathbf x}

where F is the force, x is the extension of the spring, and k is the spring constant.

This approximation is often used for chemical-bond stretching terms in various force fields:

 \Phi_{str} (r_{12}) = \frac{1}{2} K_{str} ( r_{12} - b_0 )^2