# Fluctuation-dissipation theorem

The **fluctuation-dissipation theorem** is given by

where *B* represents random noise or a fluctuating force, is a dissipative or frictional force, is the Boltzmann constant and
*T* is the temperature.

## References[edit]

- H. Nyquist "Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors", Physical Review
**32**pp. 110 - 113 (1928) - Herbert B. Callen and Theodore A. Welton "Irreversibility and Generalized Noise", Physical Review
**83**pp. 34 - 40 (1951) - Herbert B. Callen and Richard F. Greene "On a Theorem of Irreversible Thermodynamics", Physical Review
**86**pp. 702 - 710 (1952) - Richard F. Greene and Herbert B. Callen "On a Theorem of Irreversible Thermodynamics. II ", Physical Review
**88**pp. 1387 - 1391 (1952) - Denis J. Evans, E. G. D. Cohen and G. P. Morriss "Probability of second law violations in shearing steady states", Physical Review Letters
**71**pp. 2401-2404 (1993) - G. M. Wang, E. M. Sevick, Emil Mittag, Debra J. Searles, and Denis J. Evans "Experimental Demonstration of Violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics for Small Systems and Short Time Scales", Physical Review Letters
**89**050601 (2002) - Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi, Andrea Puglisi, Lamberto Rondoni, and Angelo Vulpiani "Fluctuationâdissipation: Response theory in statistical physics", Physics Reports
**461**pp. 111-195 (2008)