Clausius theorem

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The Clausius theorem [1][2] [3] [4](also known as the Carnot-Clausius theorem) states that

where Q is the heat and T is the temperature. This equation becomes an equality for a reversible cycle. This theroem has recently been derived without making use of the Second law of thermodynamics [5] by making use of the Evans-Searles transient fluctuation theorem and the Crooks fluctuation theorem.

See also[edit]