**2022: SklogWiki celebrates 15 years on-line**

# Wang-Landau method

The **Wang-Landau method** was proposed by F. Wang and D. P. Landau ^{[1]}
^{[2]}
to compute the density of states, , of Potts models;
where is the number of microstates of the system having energy
.

## Contents

## Outline of the method

The Wang-Landau method, in its original version, is a simulation technique designed to achieve a uniform sampling of the energies of the system in a given range. In a standard Metropolis Monte Carlo in the canonical ensemble the probability of a given microstate, , is given by:

- ;

whereas for the Wang-Landau procedure one can write:

- ;

where is a function of the energy. changes
during the simulation in order produce a predefined distribution of energies (usually
a uniform distribution); this is done by modifying the values of
to reduce the probability of the energies that have been already *visited*, i.e.
If the current configuration has energy ,
is updated as:

- ;

where it has been considered that the system has discrete values of the energy (as happens in Potts Models), and .

Such a simple scheme is continued until the shape of the energy distribution approaches the one predefined. Notice that this simulation scheme does not produce an equilibrium procedure, since it does not fulfill detailed balance. To overcome this problem, the Wang-Landau procedure consists in the repetition of the scheme sketched above along several stages. In each subsequent stage the perturbation parameter is reduced. So, for the last stages the function hardly changes and the simulation results of these last stages can be considered as a good description of the actual equilibrium system, therefore:

- ;

where , is the Kronecker Delta, and is the fraction of microstates with energy obtained in the sampling.

If the probability distribution of energies, , is nearly flat (if a uniform distribution of energies is the target), i.e.

- ; for each value in the selected range,

with being the total number of discrete values of the energy in the range, then the density of states will be given by:

### Microcanonical thermodynamics

Once one knows with accuracy, one can derive the thermodynamics of the system, since the entropy in the microcanonical ensemble is given by:

where is the Boltzmann constant.

## Extensions

The Wang-Landau method has inspired a number of simulation algorithms that use the same strategy in different contexts. For example:

- Inverse Monte Carlo methods
^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]} - Computation of phase equilibria of fluids
^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]} - Control of polydispersity by chemical potential
*tuning*^{[5]}

### Phase equilibria

In the original version one computes the entropy of the system as a function of
the internal energy, , for fixed conditions of volume,
and number of particles.
In Refs. ^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]} it was shown how the procedure can be applied to compute other thermodynamic
potentials that can be subsequently used to locate phase transitions. For instance, one
can compute the Helmholtz energy function ,
as a function of the number of particle
for fixed conditions of volume, , and temperature, .

### Refinement of the results

It can be convenient to supplement the Wang-Landau algorithm, which does not fulfil detailed balance,
with an equilibrium simulation ^{[7]}^{[8]}. In this equilibrium simulation one can use
the final result for (or ) extracted from
the Wang-Landau technique as a fixed function to weight
the probability of the different configurations.
Such a strategy simplifies the estimation of error bars, provides a good test of the results consistency,
and can be used to refine the numerical results.

## Applications

The Wang-Landau algorithm has been applied successfully to several problems in physics^{[?]}
, biology^{[?]}
, and chemistry^{[?]}
.

## See also

## References

- ↑ Fugao Wang and D. P. Landau "Efficient, Multiple-Range Random Walk Algorithm to Calculate the Density of States", Physical Review Letters
**86**pp. 2050-2053 (2001) - ↑ Fugao Wang and D. P. Landau "Determining the density of states for classical statistical models: A random walk algorithm to produce a flat histogram", Physical Review E
**64**056101 (2001) - ↑ N. G. Almarza and E. Lomba, "Determination of the interaction potential from the pair distribution function: An inverse Monte Carlo technique", Physical Review E
**68**011202 (2003) - ↑ N. G. Almarza, E. Lomba, and D. Molina. "Determination of effective pair interactions from the structure factor", Physical Review E
**70**021203 (2004) - ↑
^{5.0}^{5.1}Nigel B. Wilding "A nonequilibrium Monte Carlo approach to potential refinement in inverse problems", Journal of Chemical Physics**119**, 12163 (2003) Cite error: Invalid`<ref>`

tag; name "wilding" defined multiple times with different content - ↑
^{6.0}^{6.1}E. Lomba, C. Martín, and N. G. Almarza, "Simulation study of the phase behavior of a planar Maier-Saupe nematogenic liquid", Physical Review E**71**046132 (2005) Cite error: Invalid`<ref>`

tag; name "Lomba1" defined multiple times with different content - ↑
^{7.0}^{7.1}^{7.2}E. Lomba, N. G. Almarza, C. Martín, and C. McBride, "Phase behavior of attractive and repulsive ramp fluids: Integral equation and computer simulation studies", Journal of Chemical Physics**126**244510 (2007) Cite error: Invalid`<ref>`

tag; name "Lomba2" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid`<ref>`

tag; name "Lomba2" defined multiple times with different content - ↑
^{8.0}^{8.1}^{8.2}Georg Ganzenmüller and Philip J. Camp "Applications of Wang-Landau sampling to determine phase equilibria in complex fluids", Journal of Chemical Physics**127**154504 (2007) Cite error: Invalid`<ref>`

tag; name "Ganzenmuller" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid`<ref>`

tag; name "Ganzenmuller" defined multiple times with different content

**Related reading**

- D. P. Landau, Shan-Ho Tsai, and M. Exler "A new approach to Monte Carlo simulations in statistical physics: Wang-Landau sampling", American Journal of Physics
**72**pp. 1294-1302 (2004) - R. E. Belardinelli and V. D. Pereyra "Wang-Landau algorithm: A theoretical analysis of the saturation of the error", Journal of Chemical Physics
**127**184105 (2007) - R. E. Belardinelli and V. D. Pereyra "Fast algorithm to calculate density of states", Physical Review E
**75**046701 (2007)