Difference between revisions of "Diffusion"

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where <math>v_i(t)</math> is the center of mass velocity of molecule <math>i</math>. Note
 
where <math>v_i(t)</math> is the center of mass velocity of molecule <math>i</math>. Note
 
that this connect the diffusion coefficient with the velocity [[autocorrelation]].
 
that this connect the diffusion coefficient with the velocity [[autocorrelation]].
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==See also==
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*[[Rotational diffusion]]
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==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 09:42, 20 June 2008

Diffusion is the process behind Brownian motion. It was described by Albert Einstein in one of his annus mirabilis papers of 1905. What follows applies to homogeneous systems, see diffusion at interfaces for a non-homogeneous case.

The diffusion equation that describes this process is

\frac{\partial P(r,t)}{\partial t}= D \nabla^2 P(z,t),

where D is the (self-)diffusion coefficient. For initial conditions for a Dirac delta function at the origin, and boundary conditions that force the vanishing of P(r,t) and its gradient at large distances, the solution factorizes as P(r,t)=P(x,t)P(y,t)P(z,t), with a spreading Gaussian for each of the Cartesian components:

 P(x,t)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{4\pi D t}} \exp
   \left[ - \frac{x^2}{4 D t} \right].

Einstein relation

It follows from the previous equation that, for each of the Cartesian components, e.g. x:

D = \lim_{t \rightarrow \infty} \frac{1}{2} \langle \vert x_i(t) \cdot x_i(0) \vert^2\rangle  ,

for every particle i. Therefore, an average over all particles can be employed in order to improve statistics. The same applies to time averaging: in equilibrium the average from 0 to t must equal the average from \tau to t+\tau, so several time segments from the same simulation may be averaged for a given interval [2]. Adding all components, the following also applies:

D = \lim_{t \rightarrow \infty} \frac{1}{6} \langle \vert \mathbf{r}_i(t) \cdot \mathbf{r}_i(0) \vert^2\rangle


Green-Kubo relation

D = \frac{1}{3} \int_0^\infty \langle v_i(t) \cdot v_i(0)\rangle ~dt

where v_i(t) is the center of mass velocity of molecule i. Note that this connect the diffusion coefficient with the velocity autocorrelation.


See also


References

  1. Daan Frenkel and Berend Smit "Understanding Molecular Simulation: From Algorithms to Applications". Academic Press 2002
  2. Karsten Meier, Arno Laesecke, and Stephan Kabelac "Transport coefficients of the Lennard-Jones model fluid. II Self-diffusion" J. Chem. Phys. 121 pp. 9526-9535 (2004)
  3. G. L. Aranovich and M. D. Donohue "Limitations and generalizations of the classical phenomenological model for diffusion in fluids", Molecular Physics 105 1085-1093 (2007)